Air pollution - Drivers & Pressures

What are the related drivers and pressures?

A major driver for the emission of air pollutants, especially for NOx, PM10 and NMVOC is traffic, and to some extent also energy production (see also Figure 12). Since the late 1990s, passenger transport vehicle kilometres of private cars and aviation have shown a strong increase (Figure 10). Freight transport has shown an even more pronounced increase (Figure 11). Since 1990, freight transport (in tonnes kilometres) has tripled. The increase in passenger and freight transport has partly compensated the effect of emission reduction measures.

Figure 10: Development of passenger transport from 1990 to 2007 in Austria (source: Umweltbundesamt, compiled)
Figure 11: Development of freight transport from 1990 to 2007 in Austria (source: Umweltbundesamt, compiled)
Figure 12: Relative changes of gross domestic energy consumption, gross domestic energy consumption of fossil energy sources and gross domestic product in Austria (source: Umweltbundesamt 2009)
Figure 13: NOx emissions in Austria 1990 to 2007 (based on fuel consumed calculations) (Umweltbundesamt 2009a. Industry comprises CRF source categories 1A2 and CRF 2)
Figure 14: PM10 emissions in Austria 1990 to 2007 (based on fuel sold, Umweltbundesamt 2009a)
Figure 15: SO2 emissions in Austria 1990 to 2007 (based on fuel consumed calculations) (Umweltbundesamt 2009a)
Figure 16: NMVOC emissions in Austria 1990 to 2007 (other: mainly solvent and other product use. Based on fuel consumed calculations) (Umweltbundesamt 2009a)
Figure 17: NH3 emissions in Austria 1990 to 2007 (based on fuel consumed calculations) (Umweltbundesamt 2009a)